Index

Lesson XXIV

RULES OF SANDHI (Combinations)

By Sandhi* is meant the combination of two letters that come in immediate contact with each other.

This combination may take place by elision, substitution, augment, etc.

* Formed of " saü ", together, with " dhà " to join.

In Pàëi there are three classes of Sandhi, viz :-

1. Sara sandhi -Vowel Combinations,

2. Vya大ana sandhi -Consonant Combinations, and

3. Niggahita (ü) sandhi -Niggahita Combinations.

1. Sara sandhi -Vowel Combinations

1. When two vowels come together, the preceding vowel is often dropped. e.g.,

Loka - agga

= Lok'agga,

chief of the world

Pa中à - indriya

= pa中'indriya,

faculty of wisdom

Tãni - imàni

= tãn'imàni,

these three

Sabbo - eva

= sabb'eva,

verily all

2. Sometimes the following vowel is dropped, if it is preceded by a dissimilar vowel. e.g.,

Chàyà - iva

= chàyà'va,

like a shadow

Iti - api

= iti'pi,

such indeed

Pàto - eva

= pàto'va,

early morning

3. When the preceding dissimilar vowel is dropped, the following " i " and" u " short or long, are substituted by " e " and " o " respectively. e.g.,

Upa - eto

= Up'eto

constituted

Suriya - udaya

= suriy'udayu,

suriyodaya, sunrise

4. When the preceding vowel is dropped, the following vowel is sometimes lengthened. e.g.,

Buddha - anussati

= Buddh'ànussati,

reflection on the Buddha

Gacchàmi - iti

= gacchàm'ãti,

that I go

Bahu - upakàro

= bahåpakàro,

very helpful

Sace - ayaü

= sacàyaü,

if this

Idàni - ahaü

= idàn'àhaü,

now I

5. Sometimes the preceding vowel is lengthened when the following vowel is dropped. e.g.,

Lokassa - iti

= lokassà'ti,

thus to the world

Vi - atikkama

= vã'tikkama,

transgression

Sàdhu - iti

= sàdhå'ti,

thus good

Jãvitahetu - api

= jãvitahetå'pi,

even for the sake of life

6. When te, me, ye are followed by a vowel, " y " is sometimes substituted for their final " e ". e.g.,

Me - ayaü

= myayaü, myàyaü,

this by me

Te - ahaü

= tyahaü, tyàhaü,

I to thee

Ye - assa

= yyassa, yyàssa,

those to him

7. When " i ", " ã " and " u ", " o " are followed by a dissimilar vowel* " y " and " v "are sometimes substituted for them respectively. e.g.,

Vi - àkato

= vyàkato,

proclaimed

Su - àgataü

= svàgataü,

welcome

Anu - eti

= anveti,

follows

Ko - attho

= kvattho,

what good

So - ayaü

= svayaü, svàyaü,

he this

* For instance a and à are similar vowels, a and i are dissimilar vowels.

8. " Ti " of ati, iti, and pati, when followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " cc ". e.g.,

Ati - antaü

= accantaü,

exceedingly

Ati - eti

= acceti,

surpasses

Ati - odàto

= accodàto,

very white

Iti - etaü

= iccetaü,

thus that

Pati - àharati

= paccàharati,

brings back

9. Abhi, followed by a vowel is sometimes changed into " abbha ". e.g.,

Abhi - uggato

= ubbhuggato,

arose

10. " Adhi ", followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " ajjha ". e.g.,

Adhi - àgama

= ajjhàgama,

attained

11. Sometimes " t, d, n, m, y, r, ë, v " are inserted before a vowel. e.g.,

Ajja - agge

= ajjatagge,

from to-day

Atta - attha

= attadattha,

self-good

Ito - àyati

= itonàyati,

comes from here

Idha - àhu

= idhamàhu,

here they say

So - eva

= soyeva,

he himself

Ni - antaraü

= nirantaraü,

without an interval, intermittent

Cha - abhi中à

= chaëabhi中à,

six kinds of higher knowledge

Ti - aõgikaü

= tivaõgikaü,

three factors

2. Vya大ana Sandhi - Consonant Combinations

1. The vowel preceding a consonant is sometimes lengthened. e.g.,

Te - assa

= tyàssa,

those to him

Municare

= munãcare,

the sage would wander

Su - akkhàto

= svàkkhàto,

well-expounded

Jàyati soko

= jàyatãsoko,

grief arises

2. Sometimes the vowel preceding a consonant is shortened. e.g.,

Yadi và sàvake

= yadivasàvake,

or if towards the disciples

Taõhà - khayo

= taõhakkhayo,

destruction (of) craving

3. Before a consonant the final " o " of the pronominal stems " eta " and " ta " is changed into " a ". e.g.,

Eso dhammo

= esa dhammo,

that nature

So muni

= sa muni,

he (is) a sage

4. The consonant following a vowel is sometimes duplicated. e.g.,

A - pamàdo

= appamàdo,

diligence

Vi - àõaü

= vi中àõaü,

conciousness

5. When an aspirated consonant is duplicated the preceding one is changed into the unaspirated form of the same consonant. e.g.,

Ni - bhayaü

= nibbhayaü,

fearless

sa - dhammo

= saddhammo,

noble Doctrine

3. Niggahita (ü) Sandhi - Niggahita Combinations

1. The Niggahita preceding a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group; e.g.,

Taü khaõaü

= taïkhaõaü,

that instant

Saü jàta

= sa大àta,

born

Taü àõaü

= ta中àõaü,

that knowledge

Taü ñhànaü

= taõñhànaü,

that place

Ahaü te

= ahante,

I to thee

Saü nipàto

= sannipàto,

union

Saü bodhi

= sambodhi,

enlightenment

Saü màna

= sammàna,

honour

2. The Niggahita preceding " e " and " h " is changed into " ". Before " e " the substituted " " is duplicated. e.g.,

Taü - eva

= ta中eva,

itself

Taü - hi

= ta士i,

it indeed

3. The Niggahita preceding " y " is sometimes changed into " "', " y " is afterwards dropped, and the substituted " " is duplicated. e.g.,

Saü - yamo

= sa中amo,

restraint

4. The Niggahita, followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " m ", and into " d " if it is affixed to " ta " and " eta ". e.g.,

Taü - ahaü

= tamahaü,

that I

Etaü - avoca

= etadavoca,

this he said

5. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a vowel is dropped. The initial vowel of the following word not followed by a double consonant, is lengthened, and the final vowel of the preceding word is dropped. e.g.,

Adàsiü ahaü,

adàsi - ahaü,

adà's - ahaü,

adàs'àhaü,

I gave

Evaü ahaü,

eva - ahaü,

ev'ahaü,

ev'àhaü,

thus I

6. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a consonant is also dropped. e.g.,

Buddhànaü - sàsanaü

= Buddhànasàsanaü,

message of the Buddhas

7. Sometimes a Niggahita is inserted before a vowel or a consonant. e.g.,

Cakkhu udapàdi

= cakkhuü udapàdi,

the eye arose

Ava - siro

= avaüsiro,

head downwards

8. Sometimes the vowel following a Niggahita is dropped, and the Niggahita is afterwards nasalised. e.g.,

Idaü api

= idam'pi,

this too

Kiü iti

= kin'ti,

what is

Cakkaü iva

= cakkaü'va,

like a wheel