Index

Lesson XVIII

A. Declension of Satthu, m. Teacher

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

satthà

satthàro

Voc.

sattha, satthà

satthàro

Acc.

satthàraü

satthàro, satthàre

Instr., Abl.

satthàrà

satthàrebhi, satthàrehi

Dat., Gen.

satthu, satthuno, satthussa

satthàrànaü, satthànaü

Loc.

satthari

satthàresu, satthusu

bhattu,

husband

dàtu,

giver

jetu,

conqueror

kattu,

doer

nattu,

nephew

àtu,

knower

netu,

leader

sotu,

hearer

vattu,

talker

etc. are declined like " satthu ".

Pitu, m. father

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

pità

pitaro

Voc.

pita, pità

pitaro

Acc.

pitaraü

pitaro, pitare

Instr., Abl

pitarà, pitunà

pitåbhi, pitåhi, pitarebhi, pitarehi

Dat., Gen

pitu, pituno, pitussa

pitarànaü, pitånaü, pitunnaü, pitànaü

Loc.

pitari

pitaresu, pitusu

 

bhàtu, brother is declined like " pitu ".

màtu, mother is also declined like " pitu " with the exception of the following:

SINGULAR

Inst., Abl. màtarà, màtuyà

 

Dat., Gen. màtu, màtuyà

Dhãtu, duhitu - daughter, are declined like " màtu ".

B. Causal Forms (Kàrita)

Causals are formed by adding " e ", " aya " to roots ending in " u " and " å ", " àpe ", " àpaya " to roots ending in " à " and all the four or two to the other roots. The terminations are added afterwards. All tenses, moods and participles have their own causal forms. The initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, often undergoes vuddhi substitute. Sometimes the vuddhi substitutes " e " and " o " are changed into " aya " and " ava " respectively.

Examples:-

paca

+ e

+ ti

= pàceti

- causes to cook

paca

+ aya

+ ti

= pàcayati

 

paca

+ àpe

+ ti

= pàcàpeti

 

paca

+ àpaya

+ ti

= pàcàpayati

 

pàcesi, pàcayã, pàcàpesi, pàcàpayã,

he caused to cook

pàcessati, pàcayissati, pàcàpessati, pàcàpayissati,

he will cause to cook

+ àpe

+ ti

= dàpeti

-causes to give

+ àpaya

+ ti

= dàpayati

-causes to give

chidi

+ e

+ ti

= chindeti

-causes to cut

chidi

+ àpe

+ ti

= chindàpeti

-causes to cut

ni

+ àpe

+ ti

= nayàpeti

-causes to lead

gamu

+ e

+ ti

= gameti

-causes to go

su

+ e

+ ti

= sàveti

-causes to hear

bhå

+ e

+ ti

= bhàveti

-develops -lit. causes to become

Intransitive verbs become transitive, and ordinary transitive verbs take two objects when they assume causal forms.

Examples :-

Rukkho patati.

The tree falls.

So rukkhaü pàteti.

He makes the tree fall.

Dàso odanaü pacati.

The servant is cooking rice.

So dàsaü odanaü pàceti.

He makes the servant cook rice.

Sometimes the agent of the causal verb or, in other words the indirect object is put in the Instrumental case e.g.,

So dàsena odanaü pàceti.

In some cases the causal forms modify the original meaning of the verb; e.g.,

vaca -to speak,

vàceti -reads

bhå -to be,

bhàveti -develops, cultivates

Exercise xviii

A

  1. " Nam'atthu* satthuno ".
  2. " Tayà sutaü dhammaü amhe'pi sàvehi ".
  3. Satthà sàvake dhammaü desàpeti (or sàvakehi).
  4. Pità puttaü gàmaü gameti.
  5. Màtà attano dhãtaraü nahàpetvà pàñhasàlaü pesesi.
  6. Bhattà attano bhariyàya atithayo saïgaõhàpesi.
  7. Dhãtaro, dàsehi dàråni àharàpetvà aggiü dàpetha.
  8. Dhãtåhi màtaro ca pitaro ca rakkhitabbà, màtåhi ca pitåhi ca dhãtaro rakkhitabbà.
  9. Màtà dhãtare satthàraü vandàpeti.
  10. Ahaü màtuyà ca pitarà ca saddhiü àràmaü gantvà te dhammaü sàvessàmi.
  11. Màtula, mayaü pana tava nattàro homa. Tasmà no sàdhukaü uggaõhàpehi.
  12. Satthà sotàre saccàni bodhento gàmà gàmaü nagarà nagaraü vicarati.
  13. Tesaü raññhe dhitimante netàre na passàma.
  14. Màtari ca pitari ca àdarena mayhaü bhattà attano dhanena mahantaü gharaü kàràpetvà te tattha vasàpesi.

* Namo + atthu = nam'atthu
atthu
-Benedictive mood 3rd person singular of asa -to be.

 

B

  1. Talkers are not always doers.
  2. The leaders are not always conquerors.
  3. My father taught my brother well and made him a leader of the country.
  4. I made my mother give alms to the disciples of the Teacher.
  5. My nephew is reading the letter sent by his father.
  6. Virtuous daughters cause their husbands to treat their mothers and fathers well.
  7. Daily my father and mother cultivate good-will towards all beings and advise us also to do likewise.
  8. Of my two brothers one is a talker and the other is a doer.
  9. I do not cause my servants to give food to my husband.
  10. Let the Teacher cause the monks to preach the Doctrine. There will be knowers. They will understand the Truth and make others realise their Deliverance.
  11. Our father made our brothers cut the trees in the garden.
  12. The conquerors caused the people to erect a large hall in the kingdom.
  13. Daughters, you should not do evil, nor cause others to do evil.
  14. The monks should neither dig the ground nor cause others to dig the ground.