Index

Lesson XVII

A. Some Irregular Nouns ending in " a "

Atta*, m. soul, self

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

attà

attàno

Voc.

atta, attà

attàno

Acc.

attànaü, attaü

attàno

Instr.

attena, attanà

attanebhi, attanehi

Abl.

attanà, attamhà, attasmà

attanebhi, attanehi

Dat., Gen.

attano

attànaü

Loc.

attani

attanesu

* This noun is sometimes used in the sense of a reflexive pronoun.

Ràja, m. king

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

ràjà

àjàno

Voc.

ràja, ràjà

ràjàno

Acc.

ràjànaü, ràjaü

ràjàno

Instr.

raいà, ràjena

ràjåbhi, ràjåhi, ràjebhi, ràjehi

Abl.

raいà, ràjamhà, ràjasmà

ràjåbhi, ràjåhi, ràjebhi, ràjehi

Dat., Gen.

raいo, ràjino

raいaü, ràjånaü, ràjànaü

Loc.

raいe, ràjini, ràjamhi, ràjasmiü

ràjusu, ràjåsu, ràjesu

B. Conjugations

In Pàëi there are seven conjugations. They differ according to their respective conjugational signs (Vikaraõa) which are added on to the roots before the terminations.

There is no definite rule to indicate to which class of conjugation the roots belong.

The conjugations are as follows :-

 

Class

Conj. sign

Pres. 3rd

1st

paca -to cook

a

pac + a + ti = pacati

 

 

bhå + a + ti = bhav + a + ti = bhavati

2nd

rudhi -to hinder

ü......a

(In this conjugation too the conjugational sign is " a ", but " ü " is argumented before the final consonant of the root and is afterwards changed into the nasal of the group-consonant that follows.

This rule applies only to the active voice.)

 

 

 

ru-ü-dh + a + ti = rundhati

 

bhuja -to eat

 

bhu--ja + a + ti = bhujati

3rd

divu -to shine

ya

div + ya + ti = divyati
= dibyati = dibbati

 

hà -to abandon

 

+ ya + ti = hàyati

4th

su -to hear

õu, õà, uõà

su + õà + ti = suõàti

 

 

also -

su + õu + ti = suõoti

 

pa + apa -to arrive

 

pa + apa + uõà + ti = pàpuõàti

5th

ji -to conquer

*

ji ++ ti =jinàti

6th

tanu -to spread

o, yira

tanu + o + ti = tanoti

 

 

 

kara + o + ti = karoti

 

 

 

+ yira + ti = kayirati

7th

cura -to steal

e, aya

cura + e + ti = coreti

 

 

 

cura + aya + ti = corayati

 

* In the conjugation of the root ki, to buy, which belongs to this class is changed into õà; e.g. ki + õà + ti = kiõàti.

The initial vowel in this class, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes vuddhi substitute, i.e., a, i and u become à, e, o respectively.

Words:

Amacca

m.

minister

Attha

m.

matter, good, welfare, meaning

Hi

indec.

indeed

Nàtha

m.

lord, refuge

Pàsàda

m.

palace

Raññha

n.

country, kingdom, realm

Saõkiëissati

 

(kilisa with saü) is defiled

Siyà

 

3rd pers. singular subjunctive of asa, to be

Ti

indec.

thus. This particle is used in quoting the words of others, at the end of sentences, etc.

Vihaいati

 

(hana with vi) perishes

Visujjhati

 

(sudha with vi) is purified

Exercise xvii

A

  1. " Ayaü me attano attho. "
  2. " Na me so attà. "
  3. " Bhagavato etaü* atthaü àroceyyàma. "
  4. " Dhammaü cara ràja!. "
  5. " Attà hi attano nàtho - Ko hi nàtho paro siyà. "
  6. " Attànaü rakkhanto paraü rakkhati. Paraü rakkhanto attànaü rakkhati. "
  7. Atãte pana amhàkaü raññhe guõavà ràjà ahosi.
  8. Raいà likhitaü* idaü lekhanaü amaccà passantu!
  9. Pàpakehi amaccehi raいo ko attho?
  10. Amhàkaü ràjànaü passituü puratthimàya disàya dve ràjàno àgatà.
  11. Ràjà attano mahesiyà saddhiü pàsàde vasati.
  12. Catåhi disàhi cattàro ràjàno àgantvà Bhagavantaü vanditvà etam'atthaü pucchiüsu.
  13. " Puttà m'atthi dhanaü m'atthi - Iti bàlo vihaいati
    Attà hi attano n'atthi - Kuto puttà kuto dhanaü. "
  14. " Attanà'va kataü pàpaü - attanà saõkilissati
    Attanà akataü pàpaü - attanà'va visujjhati. "

* ü is changed into m.

B

  1. l am my own master.
  2. He advised himself.
  3. These presents were sent by the king.
  4. Good or evil is done by oneself.
  5. The ministers taking their own sons went to the palace to see the king.
  6. It is not good for kings to get angry with the people.
  7. Virtuous kings are always respected by all.
  8. He does not know his own good.
  9. Righteous kings do not wish to associate with wicked kings.
  10. By wisdom is one purified.
  11. Ministers obtain wealth by means of kings.
  12. He for his own good associates with kings and ministers.
  13. Some kings perish on account of their greediness towards the countries of others.
  14. The ministers told that matter to the king.
  15. He does not shine like a king.