Index

Lesson XIII

Relative Pronouns

Ya, who, which, that

SINGULAR

 

m.

n.

f.

Nom.

yo

yaü

Acc.

yaü

yaü

Instr.

yena

yàya

Abl.

yamhà, yasmà

yàya

Dat., Gen

yassa

assa, yàya

Loc.

yamhi, yasmiü

yassaü, yàyaü

 

PLURAL

 

m.

n.

f.

Nom.

ye

ye, yàni

yà, yàyo

Acc

ye

ye, yàni

yà, yàyo

Instr., Abl

yebhi, yehi

yàbhi, yàhi

Dat., Gen

yesaü, yesànaü

yàsaü, yàsànaü

Loc.

yesu

yàsu

 

Ta, who, he

SINGULAR

 

m.

n.

f.

Nom.

so

naü, taü

Acc.

naü, taü

naü, taü

Instr.

nena, tena

nàya, tàya

Abl.

namhà, tamhà nasmà, tasmà

nàya, tàya

Dat., Gen

nassa, tassa

tissàya, tissà tassà, tàya

Loc.

namhi, tamhi nasmiü, tasmiü

tissaü, tassaü, tàyaü

 

PLURAL

 

m.

n.

f.

Nom.

ne, te

ne,te, nàni, tàni

nà, nàyo, tà, tàyo

Acc.

ne, te

ne,te, nàni, tàni

nà, nàyo, tà, tàyo

Instr., Abl

nebhi, nehi, tebhi, tehi

nàbhi, nàhi, tàbhi, tàhi

Dat., Gen

nesaü, nesànaü, tesaü, tesànaü

tàsaü, tàsànaü

Loc.

nesu, tesu

tàsu

The forms beginning with " t " are more commonly used.

The pronouns " ya " and " ta " are frequently used together. They are treated as Correlatives.

Examples :-

" Yo Dhammaü passati so Buddhaü passati "
He who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha

" Yaü hoti taü hotu " -be it as it may

yaü icchasi taü vadehi -Say what you wish

" Yo gilànaü upaññhàti so maü upaññhàti "
He who serves the sick serves me

Eta, that (yonder)

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

 

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

Nom.

eso

etaü

esà

ete

ete, etàni

età, etàyo

Acc.

etaü

etaü

etaü

ete

ete, etàni

età, etàyo

The rest like " ta ", with the exception of forms beginning with " n ".

The Interrogative Pronoun :

Ka, who, which?

SINGULAR

 

m.

n.

f.

Nom.

ko

kaü, kiü

Acc.

kaü,

kaü, kiü

Instr.

kena,

kàya,

Abl.

kamhà, kasmà

kàya

Dat., Gen

kassa, kissa

kàya, kassà

Loc.

kamhi, kasmiü kimhi, kismiü

kàya, kàyaü

The rest like " ya "

" ci " is suffixed to all the cases of " ka " in all the genders to form Indefinite Pronouns ; e.g., koci, kàci, any, etc.

The following adjectives are declined like "ya " :-

Aいa

another

Aいatara

certain

Apara

other, subsequent, Western

Dhakkhiõa

South

Eka

one, certain, some

Itara

different, the remaining

Katara

what? which? (generally of the two)

Katama

what? which? (generally of many)

Pacchima

West

Para

other, different

Pubba

first, foremost, Eastern, earlier

Puratthima

East

Sabba

all

Uttara

higher, superior, Northern

Aいa, aいatara, itara, eka are sometimes declined in the Dative and Genitive feminine singular as: aいissà, aいatarissà, itarissà and ekissà respectively; in the Locative feminine singular as: aいissaü, aいatarissaü, itarissaü and ekissaü respectively.

Pubba, para, apara are sometimes declined in the Ablative masculine singular, as: pubbà, parà, and aparà respectively; in the locative masculine singular, as: pubbe, pare, and apare respectively.

Words :

âdàya

indec.

p. p. ( with à) having taken.

Disà

f.

quarter, direction.

Kiü

indec.

Why? what? pray

Nàma

n.
indec.

name; mind
by name, indeed, (Sometimes used without a meaning.)

Nu

lndec.

pray, I wonder! (Sometimes used in asking a question.)

Payojana

indec.

use, need

indec.

either, or

Exercise xiii

A

  1. Ko nàma tvaü?
  2. Ko nàma eso?
  3. Ko nàma te àcariyo?
  4. Idàni eso kiü karissati?
  5. Kiü tvaü etaü pucchasi?
  6. Esà nàrã te kiü hoti?
  7. Sve kim'ete karissanti?
  8. Kassa bhikkhussa taü potthakaü pesessàma?
  9. Tesaü dhanena me kiü payojanaü?
  10. Ko jànàti 'kiü'eso karissatã'ti?'
  11. Kissa phalaü nàma etaü?
  12. Kàyaü disàyaü tassà jananã idàni vasati?
  13. Kassa dhammaü sotuü ete icchanti?
  14. " Yo Dhammaü passati so Buddham passati, yo Buddhaü passati so Dhammaü pasati ".
  15. Yaü tvaü icchasi taü etassa arocehi.
  16. Yaü te karonti tam* eva gahetvà paraü lokaü gacchanti.
  17. Yassaü disàyaü so vasati tassaü disàyaü ete'pi vasituü icchanti.
  18. Eso naro ekaü vadati, esà nàrã aいaü vadati.
  19. Paresaü bhaõóàni mayaü na gaõhàma.
  20. Etàni phalàni mà tassa sakuõassa detha.
  21. Idàni sbbe'pi te Bhikkhå uttaràya disàya aいatarasmiü àràme vasanti.
  22. Etasmiü nagare sabbe narà aparaü nagaraü agamiüsu.
  23. Kici'pi kàtuü so na jànàti.
  24. Katamaü disaü tumhe gantuü iccheyyàtha -puratthimaü và dakkhiõaü và pacchimaü và uttaraü và?
  25. Kataràya disàya tvaü suriyaü passasi -pubàyaü và aparàyaü và?

* When a niggahita (ü) is followed by a vowel, it is sometimes changed into " m ".

See note in Exercise 10 - A

B

  1. Who is she?
  2. What is his name?
  3. In which direction did he go?
  4. Is he a relative of yours?
  5. What is the name of that fruit?
  6. From whom did you buy those books?
  7. With whom shall we go to-day?
  8. In whose garden are those boys and girls playing?
  9. In which direction do you see the sun in the morning?
  10. Of what use is that to him or to her?
  11. To whom did he give those presents?
  12. What is the use of your wealth, millionaire? You are not going to take all that with you to the other world. Therefore* eat well. Have no attachment to your wealth. Grief results thereby.** Do merit with that wealth of yours. Erect hospitals for the sick schools for children, temples for monks and nuns. It is those good actions you take with you when you go to the other world.
  13. Those who do good deeds are sure to be born in good states.
  14. Let him say what he likes.
  15. We did not write all those letters.
  16. You should not tell others all that you see with your eyes.
  17. We like to live in cities in which wise men live.

* Use " tasmà ".

** Use " tena ".