Index

Lesson X

A. Declension of Nouns ending in " ã "

Sàmã m. lord, husband

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

sàmã

sàmã, sàmino

Voc.

sàmã

sàmã, sàmino

Acc.

sàmiü

sàmã, sàmino

Instr.

sàminà

sàmãbhi, sàmãhi

Abl.

sàminà sàmimhà, sàmismà

sàmãbhi, sàmãhi

Dat., Gen.

sàmino, sàmissa

sàmãnaü

Loc.

sàmini, sàmimhi sàmismiü

sàmãsu

 

The Loc. sing. has an additional " ni "

Terminations

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

--

--, no

Voc.

i

--, no

Acc.

ü

--, no

The rest like " i " terminations

Daõóã, n. one who has a stick

Terminations

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

SING.

PLU.

Nom., Voc.

daõói

daõóã, daõóini

i,

ã,ni

Acc.

daõóiü

daõóã, daõóini

ü

ã, ni

The rest like the masculine

Nàrã, f. woman

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

nàrã

nàrã, nàriyo

Voc.

nàri

nàrã, nàriyo

Acc.

nàriü

nàrã, nàriyo

Instr., Abl.

nàriyà

nàrãbhi, nàrãhi

Dat., Gen.

nàriyà

nàrãnaü

Loc.

nàriyà, nàriyaü

nàrãsu

Terminations

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

--

--, iyo

Voc.

i

--, iyo

Acc.

ü

--, iyo

The rest like " i " terminations.

Words :

Appamàda

m.

earnestness, heedfulness

Bhaginã

f.

sister

Brahmacàrã

m.

celibate

Dhammacàrã

m.

he who acts righteously

Dhana

n.

wealth

Duggati

f.

evil state

Have

indec.

indeed, certainly

Iva

indec.

like

Jananã

f.

mother

Mahesã

f.

queen

Medhàvã

m.

wise man

pàpa

n.

evil

Pàpakàrã

m.

evil-doer

Pua

n.

merit, good

Puakàrã

m.

well-doer

Seññha

adj.

excellent, chief

Sugati

f.

good or happy state

B. The Formation of Feminines

Some feminines are formed by adding " à " and " ã " to the masculines ending in " a ".

Examples :-

Aja

goat

Ajà

she-goat

Assa

horse

Assà

mare

Upàsaka

male devotee

Upàsikà

female devotee

Dàraka

boy

Darikà

girl

(If the noun ends in " ka ", the preceding vowel is often changed into " i ".)

Deva

god

Devã

goddess

Dàsa

servant

Dàsã

maid-servant

Nara

man

Nàrã

woman

Some are formed by adding " ni " or " ini " to the masculines ending in " a ", " i " " ã ", and " u ".

Examples :-

Ràja

king

Ràjinã

queen

Hatthi

elephant

Hatthinã

she-elephant

Medhàvã

wise man

Medhàvinã

wise woman

Bhikkhu

monk

Bhikkhunã

nun

But :

Màtula, uncle becomes màtulànã, aunt and

Gahapati, male house-holder - gahapatànã, female house-holder.

Exercise x

A

  1. " Dhammo have rakkhati Dhammacàrã. "
  2. " Na duggatiü gacchati dhammacàrã. "
  3. Narà ca nàriyo ca puaü katvà sugatãsu uppajjissanti.
  4. Bhaginã tassa sàminà saddiü jananiü passituü sve gamissati.
  5. Pàpakàrã, tumhe pàpaü katvà duggatãsu uppajjissatha.
  6. Idàni mayaü brahmacàrino homa.
  7. Mahesiyo nàrãnaü puaü kàtuü dhanaü denti.
  8. Hatthino ca hatthiniyo ca añavãsu ca pabbatesu ca vasanti.
  9. Mayhaü sàmino jananã bhikkhunãna* ca upàsikàna ca saïgaõhi.
  10. Mahesi narapatinà saddhiü sve nagaraü pàpuõissati.
  11. Medhàvino ca medhàviniyo ca appamàdena Dhammaü uggaõhitvà muttiü labhissanti.
  12. Puakàrino brahmacàrãhi saddhiü vasituü icchanti.
  13. Nàriyo mahesiü passituü nagaraü agamiüsu.
  14. Bhikkhuniyo gahapatànãnaü ovàdaü adaüsu.
  15. "Appamàda ca medhàvi - dhanaü seññhaü'va** rakkhati."

* Niggahita (ü) when followed by a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group, e.g.,

saü

+ gaho

= saïgaho

saü

+ ñhàna

= saõñhàna

ahaü

+ pi

= aham'pi

ahaü

+ ca

= aha ca

taü

+ dhanaü

= tandhanaü

** Seññhaü + iva.

B

  1. Those who act righteously will not do evil and be born in evil states.
  2. The well-doers will obtain their deliverance.
  3. My husband mounted the elephant and fell on the ground.
  4. She went to school with her sister.
  5. The queen's mother is certainly a wise lady.
  6. Boys and girls are studying with diligence to get presents from their mothers and fathers.
  7. Men and women go with flowers in their hands to the temple everyday.
  8. My sister is protecting her mother as an excellent treasure.
  9. Mother, I shall go to see my uncle and aunt tomorrow.
  10. Amongst celebates* there are wise men.
  11. Having seen the elephant, the she-goats ran away through fear.
  12. The king, accompanied by** the queen, arrived in the city yesterday.

* Use the Locative.

** Use "Saddhiü"