Son of Susunága and king of Magadha for twenty-eight years. The tenth year of his reign completed one hundred years from the date of the Buddha's death.
During the reign of Kálásoka the Vajjian heresy appeared among the Sangha, and at first the king took the side of the Vajjians. Later, his sister Nandá persuaded him to transfer his patronage to the orthodox monks, and a convocation was held, with his support, at the Válikáráma in Vesáli, at which the Vajjians were proved in the wrong. (Mhv.iv.7, 8, 9, 31, 38, 39, 42, 63; Dpv.iv.44, 52; v.25, 80, 99; Sp i.33).
Kálásoka had ten sons, who carried on the government after him for twenty-two years (Mhv.v.14). He and Pandukábhaya were contemporary kings for many years (Sp.i.72).
The names of his ten sons were: Bhaddasena, Korandavanna, Mangura, Sabbańjaha, Jálika, Ubhaka, Sańjaya, Korabya, Nandivaddhana, and Pańcamaka. Mbv. p.98.
There is great difference of opinion as to the identity of Kálásoka. Some hold that he is the same as Kákavanna of the Puránas and Udáyin of the Jaina traditions, and that these names are merely other appellations of Udayabhadda of the Pali sources. Kálásoka is credited with having removed the capital of Magadha from Rájagaha to Pátaliputta. The whole question of Kálásoka is discussed by Geiger in his Introd. to the Mhv.Trs.xliii.f.