1. Ánanda.-One of the principal disciples of the Buddha. He was a first cousin of the Buddha and was deeply attached to him.

He came to earth from Tusita and was born on the same day as the Bodhisatta, his father being Amitodana the Sákiyan, brother of Suddhodana. Mahánáma and Anuruddha were therefore his brothers (or probably step-brothers). According to the Mtu.iii.176, Ánanda was the son of Suklodana and the brother of Devadatta and Upadhána. His mother was Mrgí.

Ánanda entered the Order in the second year of the Buddha's ministry, together with other Sákiyan princes, such as Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu, Kimbila and Devadatta, and was ordained by the Buddha himself (Vin.ii.182), his upajjháya being Belatthasísa (ThagA.i.68; also DA.ii.418ff.; Vin.i.202; iv. 86). Soon after, he heard a discourse by Punna Mantániputta and became a Sotápanna. In S.iii.105 Ánanda acknowledges his indebtedness to Punna and gives an account of Punna's sermon to him.

During the first twenty years after the Enlightenment, the Buddha did not have the same personal attendants all the time. From time to time various monks looked after him, among them being Nágasamála, Nágita, Upavána, Sunakkhatta, the novice Cunda, Ságata, Rádha and Meghiya. We are told that the Buddha was not particularly pleased with any of them. At the end of twenty years, at an assembly of the monks, the Buddha declared that he was advanced in years and desired to have somebody as his permanent body-servant, one who would respect his wishes in every way. The Buddha says that sometimes his attendants would not obey him, and on certain occasions had dropped his bowl and robe and gone away, leaving him.

All the great disciples offered their services, but were rejected by the Buddha. Ánanda alone was left; he sat in silence. When asked why he did not offer himself, his reply was that the Buddha knew best whom to choose. When the Buddha signified that he desired to have Ánanda, the latter agreed to accept the post on certain conditions. The Buddha was never to give him any choice food or garment (*) gotten by him, nor appoint for him a separate "fragrant cell" (residence), nor include him in the invitations accepted by the Buddha. For, he said, if the Buddha did any of these things, some would say that Ánanda's services to the Buddha were done in order to get clothes, good fare and lodging and be included in the invitations. Further he was to be allowed to accept invitations on behalf of the Buddha; to bring to the Buddha those who came to see him from afar; to place before the Buddha all his perplexities, and the Buddha was to repeat to him any doctrine taught in his absence. If these concessions were not granted, he said, some would ask where was the advantage of such service. Only if these privileges were allowed him would people trust him and realise that the Buddha had real regard for him. The Buddha agreed to the conditions.


(*) Ánanda did, however, accept one of the two robes given by Pukkusa the Mallan to the Buddha (D.ii.133); Buddhaghosa explains this by saying that Ánanda's period of service had now come to an end, and also he wished to be free from the accusation that even after having served the Buddha for twenty-five years, the Buddha had never made him any gift. It is further stated that Ánanda offered the robe to the Buddha later (DA.ii.570).


Thenceforth, for twenty-five years (Thag.v.1039), Ánanda waited upon the Buddha, following him like a shadow, bringing him water and toothpick, washing his feet, accompanying him everywhere, sweeping his cell and so forth. By day he was always at hand, forestalling the Master's slightest wish; at night, stout staff and large torch in hand, he would go nine times round the Buddha's Gandha-kuti in order to keep awake, in case he were needed, and also to prevent the Buddha's sleep from being disturbed.

The account here given is summarised from AA.i.159ff. and from ThagA.ii.121ff. On the boons see J.iv.96, where Ánanda had asked for boons in the past too. The Tibetan sources give a different and interesting version of Ánanda's entry into the Order. See Rockhill: Life of the Buddha, 57-8.

Many examples are given of- Ánanda's solicitude for the Buddha, particularly during the Buddha's last days, as related in the Mahá Parinibbána Sutta. Ánanda was the Buddha's equal in age (having been born on the same day), and it is touching to read of this old and most devoted attendant ministering to his eminent cousin, fetching him water, bathing him, rubbing his body, preparing his bed, and receiving last instructions from him on various matters of importance. It is said that when the Buddha was ill, Ánanda became sympathetically sick (D.ii.99). He was aware of every change that occurred in the Buddha's body. E.g., the brightening of his features after Janavasabha's visit (D.ii.204); and the fading of his complexion just before death, which was apparent when the Buddha put on the robe given by Pukkusa (ibid., 133).


Once, when acting on the instructions of Devadatta, the royal mahouts let loose Nálágiri, maddened with drink, on the Buddha's path, so that he might trample the Buddha to death, Ánanda, seeing the animal rushing towards them, immediately took his stand in front of the Buddha. Three times the Buddha forbade him to do so, but Ánanda, usually most obedient, refused to move, and it is said that the Buddha, by his iddhi-power, made the earth roll back in order to get Ánanda out of the elephant's path. [J.v.335-6; it was in this connection that the Cúlahamsa Játaka was preached to show that Ánanda had, in previous births also, renounced his life to save that of the Buddha; see also DhA.i.119. The Cullavagga account of the Nálágiri incident makes no mention of Ánanda's past (Vin.ii.195)].


Sometimes, the extreme zealousness of Ánanda drew on him the Buddha's rebuke - e.g., when he prepared tekatuka gruel (gruel with three kinds of pungent substances) for the Buddha when he was suffering from wind in the stomach. The gruel was prepared from food kept indoors and was cooked by Ánanda himself, indoors; this was against the rules (Vin.i.210-11), but Ánanda knew that the gruel would cure the Buddha.


Ánanda was most efficient in the performance of the numerous duties attached to his post. Whenever the Buddha wished to summon the monks or to send a message to anyone, it was to Ánanda that he entrusted the task. See, e.g., D.ii.199; 147; Vin.i.80; M.i.456.

He reported to the Buddha any news which he beard and thought interesting. E.g., the death of Nigantha Nátaputta, of which he learnt from Cunda Samanuddesa (D.iii.118; M.ii.244); also Devadatta's conspiracy to harm the Buddha (Vin.ii.198). 

Laymen and laywomen, wishing to give alms to the Buddha and the monks, would often consult him in their difficulties, and he would always advise them. E.g., the Andhakavinda Bráhmana (Vin.i.220-1); Roja the Malla (ibid., 248); see also ibid., 238f.

When the monks came to him expressing their desire to hear the Buddha preach, he did his best to grant their wish. E.g„ when the Buddha retired into the Párileyya forest (S.iii.95; DhA.i.50f.).


Sometimes when Ánanda felt that an interview with the Buddha would be of use to certain people, he would contrive that the Buddha should talk to them and solve their doubts; thus, for instance, he arranged an interview for the Nigantha Saccaka (M.i.237) and the brahmins Sangárava and Rammaka (S.i.163; M.i.161). Similarly he took Samiddhi to the Buddha when he found that Samiddhi had wrongly represented the Buddha's views (M.iii.208). When he discovered that Kimbila and a large number of other monks would greatly benefit if the Buddha would preach to them on ánápánasati, he requested the Buddha that he should do so. (S.v.323). Ánanda's requests were, however, not always granted. Once, for instance, though he asked the Buddha three times to recite the Pátimokkha, the Buddha refused to do so until an offending monk had been removed (Vin.ii.236f.).

Again, when at Vesáli, as a result of the Buddha's talks to the monks on asubha, a large number of them, feeling shame and loathing for their bodies, committed suicide, Ánanda suggested to the Buddha that he might teach the monks some method by which they might obtain insight (ańńá) (S.v.320f).


In order that people might still worship the Buddha when he was away on tour, Ánanda planted the Ánanda-Bodhi (q.v.).

Ánanda was, however, careful that people should not weary the Buddha unnecessarily. Even when he told the Buddha about the suicide of the monks (mentioned above), he was careful to wait till the Buddha had finished his fortnight's solitude, because he had given orders that he should not be disturbed.


When Subhadda wanted to see the Buddha as he lay on his death-bed, Ánanda refused to let him in until expressly asked to do so by the Master (D.ii.149). That same day when the Mallas of Kusinárá came with their families to pay their last respects to the Buddha, Ánanda arranged them in groups, and introduced each group so that the ceremony might be gone through without delay (D.ii.148).


He often saved the Buddha from unpleasantness by preventing too pious admirers from trying to persuade the Buddha to do what was against his scruples. E.g., Bodhirájakumára, when he asked the Buddha to walk over the carpets in his mansion, Kokanada (Vin.ii.128; M.ii.94).


Among Ánanda's duties was the task of going round to put away anything which might have been forgotten by anyone in the congregation after hearing the Buddha preach (DhA.i.410).


Ánanda was often consulted by colleagues on their various difficulties. Thus we find Vangísa (S.i.188; Thag.vers.1223-6) confiding to him his restlessness at the sight of women and asking for his advice. Among others who came to him with questions on various doctrinal matters were Kámabhú (S.iv.165-6), Udáyi (S.v.166-8; A.iv.449), Channa (S.iii.133-4), and Bhadda (S.v.171-3; ThagA.i.474; he could not, however, be of use to his fellow celibate Bhandu). Nor were these consultations confined to his fellow-monks, for we find the brahmins Ghosita (S.iv.113) and Unnábha (S.v.272), the Licchavis Abhaya and Panditakumáraka (A.i.220), the paribbájakas Channa (A.i.215) and Kokanuda (A.v.196), the upásiká Migasálá (A.iii.347, and again A.v.137), a householder of Kosambí (A.i.217) and Pasenadi Kosala (M.ii.112), all coming to him for enlightenment and instruction. It was on this occasion that Pasenadi presented Ánanda with a valuable piece of foreign material which had been sent to him by Ajátasattu.

Sometimes the monks, having heard a brief sermon from the Buddha, would seek out Ánanda to obtain from him a more detailed exposition, for he had the reputation of being able to expound the Dhamma (A.v.225; S.iv.93).


It is said that the Buddha would often deliberately shorten his discourse to the monks so that they might be tempted to have it further explained by Ánanda. They would then return to the Buddha and report to him Ánanda's exposition, which would give him an opportunity of praising Ánanda's erudition. MA.i.81; for such praise see, e.g., A.v.229. It is said that once when a certain landowner asked the Buddha how he could show honour to the Dhamma, the Buddha told him to show honour to Ánanda if he wished to honour the Dhamma (J.iv.369).


In the Sekha Sutta (M.i.353ff ) we are told that after the Buddha had preached to the Sákiyans of Kapilavatthu till late at night, he asked Ánanda to continue the discourse while he himself rested. Ánanda did so, and when the Buddha awoke after his sleep, he commended Ánanda on his ability. On another occasion, the Buddha asks Ánanda to address the monks on the wonders attendant on a Buddha's birth, and the Acchari-yabbhuta-Dhamma Sutta is the result. The Buddha is mentioned as listening with approval (M.iii.119ff).


Sometimes Ánanda would suggest to the Buddha a simile to be used in his discourse, e.g. the Dhammayána simile (S.v.5); or by a simile suggest a name to be given to a discourse, e.g. the Madhupindika Sutta (M.i.114; cp. Upavána suggesting the name for the Pásádika Sutta D.iii.141); or again, particularly wishing to remember a certain Sutta, he would ask the Buddha to give it a name, e.g. the Bahudhátuka Sutta (M.iii.67).


Several instances occur of Ánanda preaching to the monks of his own accord (E.g., A.ii.156f.; v.6) and also to the laity (E.g., A.ii.194). The Sandaka Sutta records a visit paid by Ánanda with his followers to the paribbajaka Sandaka, and describes how he won Sandaka over by a discourse. Sometimes, as in the case of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta (M.iii.189f ) Ánanda would repeat to the assembly of monks a sermon which he had previously heard the Buddha preach. Ánanda took the fullest advantage of the permission granted to him by the Buddha of asking him any question he desired. He had a very inquiring mind; if the Buddha smiled he would ask the reason (M.ii.45, 50, 74; A.iii.214f.; J.iii.405; iv.7).

Or if he remained silent, Ánanda had to be told the reason (S.iv.400). He knew that the Buddha did nothing without definite cause; when Upavána, who stood fanning the Buddha, was asked to move away, Ánanda wished to know the reason, and was told that Upavána prevented various spirits from seeing the Buddha (D.ii.139). The Buddha was always willing to answer Ánanda's questions to his satisfaction. Sometimes, as in the case of his question regarding the dead citizens of Ńátiká (D.ii.91ff.),* a long discourse would result.**

* In this case the discourse concluded with a description of the Dhammádása (Mirror of Truth) to be used for all time; see also S.v.356-60.

** The Pabbajjá Sutta (Sn.72ff.), was preached because of Ánanda's request that the Buddha should give an account of his renunciation (SnA.ii.381); see also Pubbayogávacara Sutta (SnA.i.47).

Most often his consultations with the Buddha were on matters of doctrine or were connected with it - e.g., on nirodha (S.iii.24); loka (S.iv.53); suńńa (S.iv.54; M.iii.104-24); vedaná (S.iv.219-21) ; iddhi (S.v.282-4; 286); ánápánasati (S.v.328-34); bhava, etc. (A.i.223f.); on the chalabhijáti of Púrana Kassapa (q.v.); the aims and purposes of síla (A.v.1f., repeated in v.311f.); the possibilities of samádhi (A.v.7f., repeated in v.318 and in A.i.132f.); on sanghabheda (A.v.75ff.); the qualities requisite to be a counsellor of monks (A.iv.279ff.); the power of carrying possessed by a Buddha's voice (A.i.226f.); the conditions necessary for a monk's happiness (A.iii.132f.); the different ways of mastering the elements (M.iii.62f.); the birthplace of "noble men" (DhA.iii.248); and the manner in which previous Buddhas kept the Fast-day (DhA.iii.246). To these should be added the conversations on numerous topics recorded in the Maháparinibbána Sutta. Some of these questions - e.g., about earthquakes (D.ii.107ff.; A.iv.312ff.) and the different kinds of spirits present at the death of the Buddha (D.ii.139f.) - seem to have been put into Ánanda's mouth in order that they might be used as pegs on which to hang beliefs connected with them which were current among later-day Buddhists.


Not all the Suttas addressed to Ánanda are, however, the result of his questions. Sometimes he would repeat to the Buddha conversations he had had with others and talks he had overheard, and the Buddha would expound in detail the topics occurring therein.


Thus, for instance, a conversation with Pasenadi Kosala on Kalyánamittatá is repeated and the Buddha explains its importance (S.i.87-9; v.2-3) ; Ánanda tells the Buddha about his visit to the Paribbajakáráma in Kosambi and what he there heard about a bhikkhu being called niddasa after twelve years of celibacy. The Buddha thereupon expounds the seven niddasavatthu (A.iv.37ff.). The account conveyed by Ánanda of Udáyí preaching to a large crowd leads to an exposition of the difficulties of addressing large assemblies and the qualities needed to please them (A.iii.184). A conversation between Udáyí and the carpenter Pańcakanga on feelings is overheard by Ánanda and reported to the Buddha, who gives a detailed explanation of his views on the subject (S.iv.222f.; M.i.397f.). The same thing happens when Ánanda mentions to the Buddha talks he had heard between Sáriputta and the Páribbájakas (S.ii.35-7) and between the same Elder and Bhúmiya (S.ii.39-41). Sometimes - as in the case of the upásiká Migasálá (A.iii.347; v.137) - Ánanda would answer questions put to him as best he could, and seek the Buddha's advice and corrections of his interpretation of the Doctrine.


When the monks asked Ánanda whether the Buddha's predictions regarding the results of Devadatta's crimes were based on actual knowledge, he furnished them with no answer at all until he had consulted the Buddha (A.iii.402). Similarly, when Tapussa questions him as to why household life is not attractive to laymen, Ánanda takes him straight away to the Buddha, who is spending his siesta in the Mahávana in Uruvelakappa (A.iv.438f.). Once Ánanda fancies that he knows all about causation, and tells the Buddha how glad he is that he should understand this difficult subject. The Buddha points out to him that he really knows very little about it and preaches to him the Mahánidána Sutta (D.ii.55ff.; S.ii.92-3).

When Ánanda realises that the Buddha will die in a short while, with childlike simplicity, he requests the Buddha to make a last pronouncement regarding the Order (D.ii.98 ff.; S.v.152-4).


On several occasions it is news that Ánanda brings to the Buddha - e.g., about the death of the Nigantha Nátaputta, and about Devadatta's plots, already mentioned - which provoke the Buddha to preach to him: Phagguna has died, and at his death his senses seemed very clear; so they would, says the Buddha, and proceeds to speak of the advantages of listening to the Dhamma in due season (A.iii.381f.). Or again, Girimánanda is ill and would the Buddha go and see him? The Buddha suggests that Ánanda should go and tell Girimánanda about the ten kinds of sańńá (aniccasńńá, etc.), and the patient will recover (A.v.108f.). Ánanda desires to retire into solitude and develop zeal and energy; would the Buddha tell him on which topics to meditate? And the Buddha preaches to him the doctrine of impermanence (S.iii.187; iv.54-5).


The Buddha, however, often preached to Ánanda without any such provocation on various topics - e.g., on the nature of the sahkhára (S.iii.3740); on the impossibility of the monk without faith attaining eminence in the sásana (A.v.152ff.); on the power the Buddha has of knowing which doctrines would appeal to different people and of preaching accordingly (A.v.36f.); on immorality and its consequences (A.i.50f.); on the admonitions that should be addressed to new entrants to the Order (A.iii.138f.); on the advice which should be given to friends by those desiring their welfare (A.i.222).


The various topics on which the Buddha discoursed to Ánanda as recorded in the Mahá Parinibbána Sutta, have already been referred to. Some of them - e.g., on the eight assemblies, the eight positions of mastery, the eight stages of deliverance (D.ii.112) - seem to be stereotyped later additions. On the other hand, with regard to the accounts of the honours to be paid to a Buddha's dead body, the places of pilgrimage for the pious, and various other similar subjects, it is impossible to say how far they are authentic. In a few instances the remarks addressed to Ánanda seem to be meant for others, to be heard by them or to be conveyed to them - e.g., in the dispute between Udáyí and Sáriputta, when they both seek the Buddha for him to settle the differences in opinion between them (A.iii.192ff.); or, again, when the recalcitrant Udáyí fails to answer the Buddha's question on subjects of reflection (anussatitthána), and Ánanda gives an answer which the Buddha approves (A.iii.322ff.). A question asked by Ánanda as to whether there are any scents which spread even against the wind, results in the well-known sermon about the fame of the holy man being wafted everywhere (A.i.222f.; DhA.i.420ff.). Once or twice Ánanda intervenes in a discussion between the Buddha and another, either to ask a question or to suggest a simile which he feels could help the Buddha in establishing his point - e.g., in the interviews of Uttiya Paribbájaka (A.v.194), of the brahmin Sangárava (A.i.169), and again of Vidúdabha, son of Pasenadi (M.ii.130).


In the Mahá Málunkyá Sutta (M.i.433), it is Ánanda's intervention which evokes the discourse on the Five Fetters. Similarly he intervenes in a discussion between the Buddha and Párásariya's pupil, Uttara, and persuades the Buddha to preach the Indriyabhávaná Sutta on the cultivation of the Faculties (M.iii.298ff.).

Buddhaghosa gives a list of the discourses which bring out the eminence and skill of Ánanda; they are the Sekha, Báhitiya, Ánańjasappáya, Gopaka-Moggallána, Bahudhátuka, Cúlasuńńata, Mahásuńńata, Acchariyabbhuta, Bhaddekaratta, Mahánidá-na, Maháparinibbána, Subha and Cúlaniyalokadhátu. (For particulars of these see under the respective names.) The books give accounts of several conversations between Ánanda and his eminent colleagues, such as Sáriputta. See also his conversation with Musíla, and Savittha and Nárada at Kosambí in the Ghositáráma (S.ii.113f.). He seems to have felt happy in their company and did not hesitate to take to them his difficulties; thus we find him asking Sáriputta why only certain beings in this world reach parinibbána (A.ii.167); on another occasion he asks Sáriputta about the possibilities of samádhi (A.v.8). On the other hand, at least twice (A.iii.201f.; 361f.), when Ánanda asks his questions of Sáriputta, the latter suggests that Ánanda himself should find the answer, and having heard it, Sáriputta praises him highly and extols his abilities.


Ánanda's special friends seem to have been Sáriputta, Moggallána, Mahá Kassapa, Anuruddha and Kankhá Revata (E.g., M.i.212f). He was the Sangha-navaka among them all, yet they held him in high esteem (MA.i.436). Ánanda and Sáriputta were very special friends. It is said that Sáriputta loved Ánanda because the latter did for the Buddha what Sáriputta would wish to have done himself, and Ánanda respected Sáriputta because he was the Buddha's chief disciple. Young men who were ordained by either of them would be sent to the other to learn under him. They shared between them any good thing given to them. Once Ánanda was presented by a brahmin with a costly robe; immediately he wished to give it to Sáriputta, but as the latter was away at the time, he obtained the Buddha's permission to keep it for him till his return (Vin.i.289; Sp.iii.636-7; MA.i.436).

The Samyutta Nikáya (i.63-4) contains an eulogy on Sáriputta by Ánanda, where the latter speaks of his comprehensive and manifold wisdom, joyous and swift, of his rampant energy and readiness to accept advice. When he hears of Sáriputta's death from Cunda the Samanuddesa, he goes to the Buddha with Cunda (not wishing to break the news himself) and they take with them Sáriputta's bowl and outer robe, Cunda carrying the ashes, and there Ánanda confesses to the Buddha that when he heard the news he felt as thought his body were drugged, his senses confused and his mind become a blank (S.v.161; Thag.vers.1034-5). The Commentary adds (SA.i.180) that Ánanda was trembling "like a cock escaping from the mouth of a cat."

That Mahá Kassapa was fond of Ánanda, we may gather from the fact that it was he who contrived to have him elected on the First Council, and when Mahá Kassapa heard of Ánanda's attainment of arahantship, it was he who led the applause (DA.i.11). Ánanda held him in the highest veneration, and on one occasion refused to take part in an upasampadá ordination because he would have to pronounce Kassapa's name and did not consider this respectful towards the Elder (Vin.i.92). In their conversations, Kassapa addresses Ánanda as "ávuso", Ánanda addresses Kassapa as "bhante." There is an interview recorded between them in which Kassapa roundly abuses Ánanda, calling him- corn-trampler" and "despoiler of families," and he ends by up saying , this boy does not know his own measure." Ánanda had been touring Dahkhinagiri with a large company of monks, mostly youths, and the latter had not brought much credit upon them selves. When Kassapa sees Ánanda on his return to Rájagaha, he puts on him the whole blame for the youths' want of training. Ánanda winces at being called "boy"; , my head is growing grey hairs, your reverence, yet I am not vexed that you should call me 'boy' even at this time of day." Thullanandá heard of this incident and showed great annoyance. "How dare Mahá Kassapa," she says, "who was once a heretical teacher, chide the sage Ánanda, calling him 'boy'?" Mahá Kassapa complains to Ánanda of Thullanandá's behaviour; probably, though we are not told so, Ánanda apologised to him on her behalf (S.ii.217ff).


On another occasion, Ánanda, after a great deal of persuasion, took Kassapa to a settlement of the nuns. There Kassapa preached to them, but the nun Thullatissá was not pleased and gave vent publicly to her displeasure. "How does Kassapa think it fit to preach the doctrine in the presence of the learned sage Ánanda? It is as if the needle-pedlar were to deem he could sell a needle to the needle-maker." Kassapa is incensed at these words, but Ánanda appeases him by acknowledging that he (Kassapa) is in every way his superior and asks him to pardon Tissa. "Be indulgent, your reverence," says he, "women are foolish." S.ii.215ff.; the Tibetans say that when Kassapa died, Ajátasattu was very grieved because he had not been able to see the monk's body. Ánanda took the king to the mountain where it had been buried and showed it to him (Rockhill, op. cit., p.162 and n.2).

In this passage Ánanda is spoken of as Vedehamuni. The Commentary (SA.ii.132) explains it by panditamuni, and says further, pandito hi ńánasankhátena vedena íhati sabbakiccáni karoti, tasmá vedeho ti vuccati ; vedeho ca so muni cá ti vedehamuni. Compare with this the derivation of Vedehiputta in connection with Ajátasattu. See also Vedehiká. The Mtu. (iii.176-7) says that when the Buddha went away from home Ánanda wished to join him, but his mother was unwilling, because his brother, Devadatta, had already gone away. Ánanda therefore went to the Videha country and became a muni. Is this another explanation of the term Vedehamuni?


It was perhaps Ánanda's championship of the women's cause which made him popular with the nuns and earned for him a reputation rivalling, as was mentioned above, even that of Mahá Kassapa. When Pajápatí Gotamí, with a number of Sákyan women, undaunted by the Buddha's refusal of their request at Kapilavatthu, followed him into Vesáli and there beseeched his consent for women to enter the Order, the Buddha would not change his mind.

Ánanda found the women dejected and weeping, with swollen feet, standing outside the Kútágárasálá. Having learnt what had happened, he asked the Buddha to grant their request. Three times he asked and three times the Buddha refused. Then he changed his tactics. He inquired of the Buddha if women were at all capable of attaining the Fruits of the Path. The answer was in the affirmative, and Ánanda pushed home the advantage thus gained. In the end the Buddha allowed women to enter the Order subject to certain conditions. They expressed their great gratitude to Ánanda (Vin.ii.253ff. Ánanda is again found as intermediary for Pajápatí Gotamí in M.iii.253f). In this connection, the Buddha is reported as having said (Vin.ii.256) that had Ánanda not persuaded him to give his consent to the admission of women to the Order, the Sásana would have lasted a thousand years, but now it would last only five hundred.

This championing of the women's cause was also one of the charges brought against Ánanda by his colleagues at the end of the First Council. (See below.)

Perhaps it was this solicitude for their privileges that prompted him to ask the Buddha one day why it was that women did not sit in public assemblies (e.g. courts of justice), or embark on business, or reap the full fruit of their actions (A.ii.82. See also GS.ii.92, n.2, on the interpretation of the last word).

That Ánanda was in the habit of preaching frequently to the nuns is evident from the incidents quoted above and also from other passages (E.g., S.v.154ff.; Thag.v.1020; ThagA.ii.129). He seems also to have been in charge of the arrangements for sending preachers regularly to the nuns. A passage in the Samyutta Commentary (i.210) seems to indicate that Ánanda was a popular preacher among laywomen as well.

They would stand round him when he preached, fanning him and asking him questions on the Dhamma. When he went to Kosambí to impose the higher penalty on Channa, the women of King Udena's harem, hearing of his presence in the park, came to him and listened to his preaching. So impressed were they that they gave him five hundred robes (Vin.ii.290). It was on this occasion that Ánanda convinced Udena of the conscientiousness with which the Sákyaputta monks used everything which was given to them, wasting nothing. The king, pleased with Ánanda, gave him another five hundred robes, all of which he distributed among the community.

Ananda had been a tailor in a past birth and had given a Pacceka Buddha a piece of cloth, the size of his hand, and a needle. Because of the gift of the needle he was wise, because of the cloth he got 500 robes (AA.i.239).

A similar story is related of the women of Pasenadi's palace and their gift to Ánanda. The king was at first angry, but afterwards gave Ánanda one thousand robes (J.ii.24ff).


The Dhammapada Commentary (i.382ff ) says that once Pasenadi asked the Buddha to go regularly to the palace with five hundred monks and preach the Law to his queens Malliká and Vásabhakhattiyá and to the other women in the palace. When the Buddha said that it was impossible for him to go regularly to one place he was asked to send a monk, and the duty was assigned to Ánanda. He therefore went to the palace at stated times and instructed the queens. Malliká was found to be a good student, but not so Vásabhakhattiyá.


The Játaka Commentary (i.382) says that the women of the palace were themselves asked which of the eighty chief disciples they would have as their preacher and they unanimously chose Ánanda. For an incident connected with Ánanda's visits to the palace see the Mahására Játaka and also Pasenadi.

According to the Anguttara Commentary (ii.533) Ánanda was beautiful to look at.

Ánanda's services seem often to have been sought for consoling the sick. Thus we find Anáthapindika sending for him when he lay ill (M.iii.258), and also Sirivaddha (S.v.176f) and Mánadinna (S.v.177f). He is elsewhere mentioned as helping the Buddha to wait on a sick monk (Vin.i.302). We are told that when the Buddha had his afternoon siesta, Ánanda would spend his time in waiting upon the sick and talking to them (Sp.iii.651). Ánanda was never too busy to show gratitude to his friends. When a certain crow-keeper's family, members of which had been of special service to him, had been destroyed by a pestilence, leaving only two very young boys, he obtained the Buddha's special permission to ordain them and look after them, though they were under the requisite age. (Vin.i.79; to a young monk who used to wait on him and do various services for him, Ánanda gave five hundred robes presented to him by Pasenadi; the monk distributed them to his colleagues).

When Ánanda discovered that his friend Roja and Malla had no real faith in the Buddha, he was greatly grieved and interceded on his special behalf with the Buddha that he should make Roja a believer. Later he obtained the Buddha's permission for Roja to offer a meal of potherbs (Vin.i.247-9). In another place we find Roja presenting Ánanda with a linen cloth (Vin.i.296). According to the Játakatthakathá (ii.231) Roja once tried to persuade Ánanda to go back to the lay-life.

His sympathy is also shown in the story of the woman who asked to have a share in the Vihára built by Visákhá. She brought a costly carpet, but could find no place in which to put it; it looked so poor beside the other furnishings. Ánanda helped her in her disappointment (DhA.i.415f).

Once in Jetavana, in an assembly of monks, the Buddha spoke the praises of Ánanda, and ranked him the foremost bhikkhu in five respects: erudition, good behaviour (gatimantánam, power of walking, according to Dhammapála), retentive memory, resoluteness and personal attention (A.i.24f). Again, shortly before the Buddha's death, he speaks affectionately of Ánanda (D.ii.144-5; A.ii.132; A.v.229; SA.ii.94f ); Ánanda knew the right time to bring visitors to the Tathágata; he had four exceptional qualities, in that whoever came to see him, monks or nuns, laymen or laywomen, they were all filled with joy on beholding him; when he preached to them they listened with rapture and delight, which never tired. He was called Ánanda because he brought joy to his kinsmen (ThagA.ii.123).

But see the story of Atula (DhA.iii.327), who is not satisfied with Ánanda's preaching.

Another proof of the Buddha's esteem for Ánanda is the incident of his asking Ánanda to design a robe for the monks to be in pattern like a field in Magadha (Vin.i.287).


In spite of Ánanda having been the constant companion of the Buddha - probably because of that very fact - it was not until after the Buddha's parinibbána that Ánanda was able to realise Arahantship. Buddhaghosa gives a long account of Ánanda's struggle for final emancipation (DA.i.9ff.); see also Vin.ii.286. Though he was not an arahant he had the patisambhidá, being among the few who possessed this qualification while yet learners (Sekhá) ( VibhA.388). When it was decided by Mahá Kassapa and others that a Convocation should be held to systematise the Buddha's teachings, five hundred monks were chosen as delegates, among them, Ánanda. He was, however, the only non-arahant (sekha) among them, and he had been enjoined by his colleagues to put forth great effort and repair this disqualification. At length, when the convocation assembled, a vacant seat had to be left for him. It had not been until late the previous night that, after a final supreme effort, he had attained the goal. He had been occupied in consoling the laity after the Buddha's death and had had no time for practising meditation. In the end it was a devatá in the woodland grove in Kosala, where he was staying, who pointed out the urgency of the matter (S.i.199-200); but see ThagA.i.237, where the credit for this is given to a Vajjiputta thera.

It is said that he won sixfold abhińńá when he was just lying down to sleep, his head hardly on the pillow, his feet hardly off the ground. He is therefore described as having become an arahant in none of the four postures. When he appeared in the convocation, Mahá Kassapa welcomed him warmly and shouted three times for joy. According to the Majjhimabhánaká, says Buddhaghosa, Ánanda appeared on his seat while the others looked on, having come through the earth; according to others he came through the air. According to ThagA.ii.130, it was a Brahmá of the Suddhávása who announced Ánanda's attainment of arahantship to his colleagues at the Convocation.

In the convocation, Ánanda was appointed to answer Mahá Kassapa's questions, and to co-operate with him in rehearsing the Dhamma (as opposed to the Vinaya).

Ánanda came to be known as Dhammabhandágárika, owing to his skill in remembering the word of the Buddha; it is said that he could remember everything spoken by the Buddha, from one to sixty thousand words in the right order; and without missing one single syllable (ThagA.ii.134).

In the first four Nikáyas of the Sutta Pitaka, every sutta begins with the words "Thus have I heard," the "I" referring to Ánanda. It is not stated that Ánanda was present at the preaching by the Buddha of every sutta, though he was present at most; others, the Buddha repeated to him afterwards, in accordance with the conditions under which he had become the Buddha's attendant.

We are told that Ánanda had learnt eighty-two thousand dhamma (topics) from the Buddha himself and two thousand from his colleagues (Thag.v.1024). He had also a reputation for fast talking; where an ordinary man could speak one word Ánanda could speak eight; the Buddha could speak sixteen words for each one word of Ánanda (MA.i.283). Ánanda could remember anything he had once heard up to fifteen thousand stanzas of sixty thousand lines (MA.i.501).

Ánanda lived to be very old (one hundred and twenty years, says DhA.ii.99; he is bracketed with Bakkula, as having lived to a great age, AA.ii.596); a hymn of praise sung at his death is included at the end of the stanzas attributed to him in the Theragáthá (Vers.1047-9). That the Buddha's death was a great blow to him is shown by the stanzas he uttered immediately after the event (D.ii.157). Three months earlier he had heard for the first time that death of the Buddha was near at hand and had besought him to live longer. The reply attributed to the Buddha is a curious one, namely, that on several previous occasions, at Rájagaha and at Vesálí (See, e.g., D.102f), he had mentioned to Ánanda that he could, if he so desired, live for a whole kappa, and had hinted that Ánanda should, if he felt so inclined, request him to prolong his life. Ánanda, however, having failed to take the hint on these occasions, the opportunity was now past, and the Buddha must die; the fault was entirely Ánanda's (Ibid., 114-18). It was when Ánanda was temporarily absent from the Buddha's side that the Buddha had assured Mára that he would die in three months (Ibid., 105-6).

As the end approached, the Buddha noticed that Ánanda was not by his side; on enquiry he learnt that Ánanda was outside, weeping and filled with despair at the thought that the Master would soon be no more, and that he (Ánanda) would have to work out his perfection unaided. The Buddha sent for him and consoled him by pointing out that whatever is born must, by its very nature, be dissolved. Three times he said, "For a long time, Ánanda, you have been very near to me by acts of love, kind and good, never varying, beyond all measure," and he exhorted him to be earnest in effort, for he would soon realise emancipation. (Ibid., 144). It was on this occasion that the Palása Játaka was preached (J.iii.23ff.).

Once, earlier, when Udáyi had teased Ánanda for not having benefited from his close association with the personality of the Master, the Buddha had defended Ánanda, saying, "Say not so, Udáyi; should he die without attaining perfect freedom from passion, by virtue of his piety, he would seven times win rule over the devas and seven times be King of Jambudípa. Howbeit, in this very life shall Ánanda attain to Nibbána. A.i.228.


Ánanda did his best to persuade the Buddha to die in one of the great cities, such as Rájagaha or Sávatthi, and not in Kusinárá, the little wattle-and-daub town (as he called it) in the middle of the jungle. He was not satisfied until the Buddha had revealed to him the past history of Kusinárá, how it had once been Kusávatí, the royal capital of the mighty Mahá Sudassana (D.ii.146).

Just before the Buddha died, Ánanda was commissioned to inform the Mallas of the impending event, and after the Buddha's death, Anuruddha entrusted him, with the help of the Mallas of Kusinááa, with all the arrangements for the funeral (D.ii.158ff). Ánanda had earlier (D.ii.141f) learnt from the Buddha how the remains of a Tathágata should be treated, and now he was to benefit by the instruction.

At the end of the First Council, the duty of handing down unimpaired the Digha Nikáya through his disciples was entrusted to Ánanda (DA.i.15). He was also charged with the duty of conveying to Channa the news that the higher penalty (brahmadanda) had been inflicted on him by the Sangha. Ánanda had been deputed by the Buddha himself to carry out this, his last administrative act (D.ii.154), but Ánanda, not wishing to undertake the responsibility alone (knowing that Channa had a reputation for roughness), was granted a number of companions, with whom he visited Channa. The latter expressed repentance and was pardoned (Vin.ii.290-2). Perhaps it was because both the Buddha and Ánanda's colleagues knew of his power to settle disputes that he was chosen for this delicate task. See S.ii.235f., where the Buddha classes him with Sáriputta and Moggallána for his ability to settle disputes among the monks.

Ánanda's popularity, however, did not save him from the recriminations of his fellows for some of his actions, which, in their eyes, constituted offences. Thus he was charged (Vin.ii.288-9) with: (1) having failed to find out from the Buddha which were the lesser and minor precepts which the Sangha were allowed to revoke if they thought fit (See D.ii.154); (2) with having stepped on the Buddha's rainy-season garment when sewing it; (3) with having allowed the Buddha's body to be first saluted by women (not mentioned elsewhere, but see Rockhill, op. cit., p.154); (4) with having omitted to ask the Buddha to live on for the space of a kappa (D.ii.115); and (5) with having exerted himself to procure the admission of women into the Order (Vin.ii.253).

Ánanda's reply was that he himself saw no fault in any of these acts, but that he would confess them as faults out of faith in his colleagues.


On another occasion he was found fault with (1) for having gone into the village to beg for alms, clothed in his waist-cloth and nether garment (Vin.i.298); (2) for having worn light garments which were blown about by the wind (Vin.ii.136).

The last years of his life, Ánanda seems to have spent in teaching and preaching and in encouraging his younger colleagues. Among those who held discussions with him after the Buddha's passing away are mentioned Dasama of the Atthakanagara (M.i.349f), Gopaka Moggallána (M.iii.7; Thag.ver.1024) and Subha Todeyyaputta (D.i.204ff).

The Páli Canon makes no mention of Ánanda's death. Fa Hsien (Giles trans. 44. The story also occurs in DhA.ii.99ff., with several variations in detail), however, relates what was probably an old tradition. When Ánanda was on his way from Magadha to Vesáli, there to die, Ajátasattu heard that he was coming, and, with his retinue, followed him up to the Rohini River. The chiefs of Vesali also heard the news and went out to meet him, and both parties reached the river banks. Ánanda, not wishing to incur the displeasure of either party, entered into the state of tejokasina in the middle of the river and his body went up in flames. His remains were divided into two portions, one for each party, and they built cetiyas for their enshrinement (See also Rockhill, op. cit., 165f).

In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Ánanda had been the son of Ánanda, King of Hamsavatí, and was therefore a step-brother of Padumuttara. His name was Sumana. King Ánanda allowed no one but himself to wait on the Buddha. Prince Sumana having quelled an insurrection of the frontier provinces, the king offered him a boon as reward, and he asked to be allowed to entertain the Buddha and his monks for three months. With great reluctance the king agreed, provided the Buddha's consent was obtained. When Sumana went to the vihára to obtain this, he was greatly impressed by the loyalty and devotion of the Buddha's personal attendant, the monk Sumana, and by his iddhi-powers. Having learnt from the Buddha that these were the result of good deeds, he himself determined to lead a pious life. For the Buddha's residence Prince Sumana bought a pleasaunce named Sobhana from a householder of that same name and built therein a monastery costing one hundred thousand. On the way from the capital to Sobhana Park he built viháras, at distances of a league from each other. When all preparations were completed, the Buddha went to Sobhana with one hundred thousand monks, stopping at each vihára on the way. At the festival of dedication of the Sobhana Vihára, Sumana expressed a wish to become a personal attendant of a future Buddha, just as Sumana was of Padumuttara. Towards this end he did many good deeds. In the time of Kassapa Buddha he gave his upper garment to a monk for him to carry his begging-bowl in it. Later he was born in heaven and again as King of Benares. He built for eight Pacceka Buddhas eight monasteries in his royal park (ThagA.ii.121ff) and for ten thousand years he looked after them. The Apadána mentions (i.52f) that he became ruler of heaven thirty-four times and king of men fifty-eight times.


Ánanda's name occurs in innumerable Játakas; he is identified with


Several times he was born as an animal.


He was many times king:


He was King of Benares in the Káka (i.486), the Tacasára (iii.206) and the Sankhapála (v.177); King Mallika in the Rájováda (ii.5), the Kosala King in the Manikundala (iii.155), King Vanka in the Ghata (iii.170), the Kosavya King in the Dhúmakári (iii.402), King Addhamásaka in the Gangamála (iii.454), and King Dhanańjaya in the Sambhava (v.67), and the Vidhurapandita (vi.329).


In the Mahá Náradakassapa Játaka (J.vi.255) Ánanda was born as Rujá, daughter of King Angati.


The Dhammapada Commentary (i.327) states that once when Ánanda was a blacksmith he sinned with the wife of another man. As a result, he suffered in hell for a long time and was born for fourteen existences as some one's wife, and it was seven existences more before the results of his evil deed were exhausted.


There seems to be some confusion as to the time at which Ánanda entered the Order. In the Canonical account (E.g., Vin.ii.182) he became a monk in the second year of the Buddha's ministry. In the verses attributed to him in the Theragátha (Vers.1039ff), however, he says that he has been for twenty five years a learner (sekha). It is concluded from this that Ánanda must have joined the Order only in the twentieth year after the Enlightenment and the whole story of his having been ordained at the same time as Devadatta is discredited. (See, e.g., Thomas: op. cit., 123. See also Rhys Davids' article on Devadatta in ERE). The verses occur in a lament by Ánanda that his master is dead and that he is yet a learner. The twenty-five years which Ánanda mentions probably refer to the period during which he had been the Buddha's personal attendant and not to his whole career as a monk. During that period, "though he was but a learner, no thoughts of evil arose in him," the implication being that his close connection with the Buddha and his devotion to him gave no room for such. He, nevertheless, laments that he could not become an asekha while the Buddha was yet alive. If this interpretation be accepted - and I see no reason why it should not be - there is no discrepancy in the accounts of Ánanda's ordination.

2. Ánanda.-A Khattiya king of Hamsavati, father of Padumuttara Buddha (J.i.37; Bu.xii.19). He had, by another wife, a daughter Nandá, who became the therí Pakulá in the present age (ThigA.91). Once, with twenty of his ministers and twenty thousand of his subjects, he appeared before Padumuttara Buddha at Mithilá and, having received the "ehi-bhikkhu-pabbajjá," they became arahants (MA.ii.722; DA.ii.488). The Buddha went back with them to Hamsavatí where he preached the Buddhavamsa (BuA.160).

One of Ánanda's sons was the prince Sumana, step-brother to Padumuttara, who became Ánanda, the personal attendant of Gotama Buddha. ThagA.ii.122.

3. Ánanda.-Step-brother of Mangala Buddha. He came to Mangala Buddha with ninety crores of followers; having heard the Buddha's preaching, they all became arahants. J.i.30.

4. Ánanda.-Son of Tissa Buddha, his mother being Subhaddá. Bu.xviii.18.

5. Ánanda.-Son of Phussa Buddha, his mother being Kiságotami (Bu.xix.16). The Buddhavamsa Commentary (p.192), however, gives his name as Anupama.

6. Ánanda.-A Pacceka Buddha of ninety-one kappas ago. The thera Citakapújaka, in a previous birth, came down from the deva-loka and cremated the Pacceka Buddha's body with due honour (Ap.i.227). According to the Majjhima Nikáya and its Commentary (M.iii.70; MA.ii.890), there were four Pacceka Buddhas of this name.

7. Ánanda.-A king of vultures. He dwelt with ten thousand vultures in Gijjhakúta and came to hear Kunála preach. At the end of Kunála's sermon Ánanda, too, discoursed in the same strain, dwelling on the evil qualities of women "keeping to facts within his knowledge" (J.v.424, 447-50). He lived in the Kunáladaha with Nárada, Devala, Punnamukha, the cuckoo, and Kunála (SnA.i.359). In the present age the vulture-king was Ánanda Thera, the Buddha's attendant (J.v.456).

8. Ánanda.-A king of fishes, appointed by the fishes themselves to rule over them (J.i.207; ii.352). He was one of the six monsters of the deep. He lived on one side of the ocean and all the fishes came to him morning and evening to pay their respects. He lived on rock-slime (sevála) till one day he swallowed, by mistake, a fish. Liking the taste very much, be found out what it was, and from that day he ate fish, unknown to his subjects. Seeing their numbers diminish, they began to grow inquisitive, and one day one of their wise ones hid in the lobe of Ánanda's ear and discovered him eating the fish which straggled behind. When this was reported to the other fish, they fled in terror and hid themselves. Ánanda, desirous of eating them, searched everywhere; believing that they lay inside a mountain, he encircled it with his body. Seeing his own tail on the other side of the mountain and believing it to be a fish trying to escape, he crunched it in a rage. The tail was fifty leagues long and he suffered excruciating pain. Attracted by the smell of blood, the fish collected round and ate him bit by bit. His skeleton was as big as a mountain, and holy ascetics, flying through the air and seeing it below them, told men about it and the story became famous throughout Jambudípa. Kálahatthi is reported as relating this story to the king in the Mahá Sutasoma Játaka (J.v.462-4). Ánanda is referred to as an example of great deceitfulness. MA.i.138.

9. Ánanda. A yakkha to whom a shrine, called the Ánanda Cetiya, was dedicated. The Cetiya was in Bhoganagara and was later converted into a Buddhist Vihára (AA.ii.550). There the Buddha stayed during his last sojourn, and mention is made of a sermon he preached there to the monks on the Four Great Authorities (cattáro mahápadesá) (D.ii.123-6; A.ii.167). From there he went to Pává.

10. Ánanda.-A banker of Sávatthi. He had eighty crores of money, but was a great miser. He had a son, Múlasiri, and once a fortnight he would gather his kinsfolk together and, in their presence, admonish his son as to the desirability of amassing wealth, always increasing it, giving none away. When the banker died he was born in a Candála family outside the city gates. The king appointed Múlasiri banker in his place.

From the time of Ánanda's conception among the Candálas, misfortune dogged their footsteps. Knowing that a Jonah had come among them, they caused a search to be made and, as a result of their investigations, they sent the pregnant mother away. When the child was born he was a monstrosity with his organs all out of place. When old enough, he was given a potsherd and told to beg his living. One day he came to the house in which he had lived in his former life, and though he managed to enter it, he was discovered and thrown out by the servants. The Buddha happened to be passing by, and sending for Múlasiri, he told him that the beggar had been his father. Being convinced by certain proofs, Múlasiri believed and took refuge in the Buddha (DhA.ii.25-8; the story is referred to in the Milindapańha p.350). It is said that eighty-four thousand beings attained deathlessness on the occasion of the Buddha preaching to Múlasiri about his father Ánanda. AA.i.57.

11. Ánanda.-Author of the Múlatiká on Buddhaghosa's Commentaries on the Abhidhamma (Gv.60, 69; Sas.69). He was originally a native of India, but came over to Ceylon and became head of the Vanavási fraternity in the Island. He probably lived about the eighth or ninth century A.D. and wrote the Múlatiká at the request of a monk named Buddhamitta. He is probably identical with Ánanda, teacher of Culla Dhammapála (see below) (P.L.C.202f.; 216f). He was also known as Vanaratana Tissa from his connection with the Vanavási school.

12. Ánanda.-Teacher of Culla Dhammapála, author of the Saccasankhepa. The Saddhamma Sanghala (ix) says that Ánanda was the author of the Saccasankhepa. See also above (Ánanda 11).

13. Ánanda.-Teacher of Buddhappiya, author of the Rúpasiddhi. He was a native of Ceylon, for Buddhapiya refers to him as "Tambapannid-dhaja." He too belonged to the Vanavási sect and wrote a Sinhalese interverbal translation to Piyadassi's Pada-Sádhana and another to the Khudda-Sikkhá. He was a disciple of Udumbaragiri Medhankara, pupil of Sáriputta, and he probably lived in the time of Vijayabáhu III. (P.L.C. 211).

He was the teacher of Vedeha, author of the Samantakúavannaná (P.L.C. 220). See also Buddhavamsa Vanaratana Ánanda.

14. Ánanda.-Author of the Saddhammopáyana, also called Abhayagiri-Kavicakravarti Ánanda and probably belonging to the same period as Ánanda (13). His friend and companion, for whom his book was written, was Buddhasoma. An Ánanda, probably a later writer, is also the author of a Sinhalese Commentary on the Saddhammopáyana. P.L.C.212.

15. Ánanda.-Companion of Chapata and co-founder of the Síhala-Sangha of Burma (Sás.65). He was later cut off from the community for trying to send to his kinsfolk an elephant presented to him by King Narapati. His companions suggested that the animal should be let loose in the forest, in accordance with the Buddha's teaching regarding kindness to animals. Ánanda's reply was that the Buddha had also preached kindness to kinsfolk (Bode: op. cit., 24). He died in 1246 (Forehammer: Jardine Prize Essay, p.35).

16. Ánanda.-Of Hamsavatí. Author of the Madhusáratthadípaní, a tíká on the Abhidhamma. Sás.48; but see Bode: op. cit., 47-8.

17. Ánanda.-Called Mánava, in order to distinguish him from others. He was a brahmin youth, maternal cousin of the therí Uppalavanná, with whom he had been in love when she was a laywoman. One day when Upalavanná returned from her alms-rounds to her hut in Andhavana, where she was living at the time, Ánandamánava, who was hiding under her bed, jumped up and seized her. In spite of her protestations and admonitions, he overcame her resistance by force and, having worked his will of her, went away. As if unable to endure his wickedness, the earth burst asunder and he was swallowed up in Avíci (DhA.ii.49-50).

In order that such assaults should not be repeated, Pasenadi Kosala erected, at the Buddha's suggestion, a residence for the nuns within the city gates, and henceforth they lived only within the precincts of the city (DhA.ii.51f).

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